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      Starch is obtained from corn, sorghum, wheat and other cereal crops, such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other potato plants. After soaking and grinding, non-starch substances such as protein, fat, and cellulose are separated and removed. When starch is processed from corn, non-starch obtained such as protein and corn oil has a high value, so the corn flour industry develops rapidly. After developing technical processing in starch to prepare starch sugars and starch derivatives, various applications of starch were explored, which promoted the development of starch processing into large-scale industrial production. Starch is a white granular carbohydrate naturally synthesized by plants through photosynthesis, found in plant seeds (such as corn, wheat, rice, sorghum and beans), roots (such as yams, cassava), and tubers (such as potatoes). Is being Starch content in seeds, roots and stems of various plants, morphology and particle structure varies with variety, climate, soil culture and other growth conditions.
       Starch products are products made from starch, which are processed by mechanical, chemical or biochemical processes. There are many types of starch products, and the classification method varies. According to processing technology, it can roughly be divided into four categories: starch separation products, starch products, modified starches and starch sugars. Most of these products are raw materials for the food or food industry, and some raw materials for the paper industry, the textile industry, and other industries.
The physical properties of starch and the chemical structure of Starch consist of small particles of various shapes. Particles of cornstarch are mostly round and polygonal, with diameters of 5 to 26 microns, oval starch potatoes, with diameters of 15 to 100 microns, and polygonal rice starch with a diameter of 3 to 8 microns.
      Starch granules do not dissolve in cold water and are mixed with water to form a suspension of milk called starch milk. When milk starch is heated to a certain temperature, starch granules swell and swell to get thick starch paste. This phenomenon is called gelatinization, and this temperature is called the gelatinization temperature. The gelatinization temperature of corn starch is 64-72 ° C, potato starch 56-67 ° C, and sweet potato starch 70-76 ° C. Different products can be made using different gelatinization temperatures.
      It was known in the early 19th century that starch was a polysaccharide consisting of glucose. D-glucose configuration was determined between 1884 and 1894. It was determined around 1935 that the glucose units that make up starch were α-D-hexacyclic glucose, and most of them consisted of α-1,4 bonds. Until 1941, the starch was successfully divided into linear chains consisting of linear structures. Two parts of amylopectin are composed of starch and branched structures. Different starch varieties contain two different types of starch, for example, amylose content in corn flour is around 26%, while high-chain corn starch content reaches 70-80%. The content of rice and potato starch is around 70%. Around 20%. Amylopectin content in sticky corn and glutinous starch can reach 100%.
      Starch production In the early stages of production starch, potatoes and nuts are used. The steps of starch processing are soaking raw materials, coarse and fine secondary grinding, sifting and separation of fibers, and slurry fermented with lactic acid to separate proteins, and after repeated rinsing, the slurry is filtered by hanging bags to get more starch. Processed into food such as fans and powder.
Because of the development of application technology, the technology of making starch has been continuously improved, and modern corn has been used to produce starch (see processing wheat).
      The product of separating starch separates starch into relatively simple amylose and amylopectin products.
      The separation method using different physical and chemical properties of the two components above has been studied. However, because the product obtained is basically a mixture of two components, and a large amount of energy consumed in the separation process, this separation technique has no practicality in the application of industrial production. In agriculture, breeding technology basically meets the requirements. For example, in US starch, special corn varieties with 80% amylose content have been produced on a large scale, and astringent (thick) grains containing almost amylopectin are more common in the world. Directly used to produce relatively simple amylose or amylopectin products.
      Amylose has good film-forming properties and can be made into edible films with high tensile strength, solubility in water, and biodegradability. The addition of a hydrophobic or amylose plasticizer modified by crosslinking reaction can be used to form a waterproof film. Amylose is a strong binder, coating agent, paste, gelling agent and adhesive. Amylopectin is stable in solution, does not easily thicken, gel or settle, and can maintain a transparent and thick liquid paste for a long time, and is suitable for food preparation that has such requirements.
      Products formed by starch undergo a process of heating, gelatinization, printing and drying to form products with certain shapes. There are fans, skin powder, sago, etc.
      The fan fan is traditional Chinese food, made from green bean flour and boiling water to make a thin paste. Add the right raw flour, stir to get a thick and medium paste, then place it on the bottom of the barrel to leak with lots of small round holes. In the middle, the paste naturally flows from the hole to the thin strip and falls into the water with almost boiling. Thin slices are cooked and formed, and then flow through the adjacent cold water bath to cool, and then cut and dry. Peanut starch can leak into a strong, sustainable filament product called a fan. Potato starch can only leak into products with a relatively large diameter, commonly called vermicelli.
      Powdered milk flour is placed in a shallow metal tray and floating above a boiling water bath for boiling, and the powder is peeled into thin sheets.
Sago will adjust tapioca flour or sago flour into a thin paste, add about 20 times the raw flour and stir it into a dough shape, then grind it into a bead and dry form. Suitable for making sweet fillings and fruit.
      Fast food in Europe can be granulated with potato flour and condensed milk or milk powder, heated and dried at a temperature of 100 to 150 ° C, and immediately served after preparation.
      Raw starch which is chemically modified, physically or enzymatically modified to change its properties to be more suitable for a variety of specific uses. Also known as modified starch.
      There are many treatment methods for starch denaturation. Dense starch granules and gelatinization in water, called pre-gelatinization starch. Some of them are heated or chemically destroyed to break down some or all starch molecules, and the structure of starch granules is weakened, which reduces the ability to swell during gelatinization. Acid-modified starches (acid-modified starches), oxidized and dextrin starches, and chemical treatments to change the chemical structure of several units of glucose in starch molecules to form derivatives such as starch esters, starch ether, transplanted starch, Starch dialdehyde and ionic starch, etc.
      The purpose of starch denaturation is to change the gelatinization properties and paste characteristics of native starch, reduce the tendency of starch to regulate and the tendency of gelation, increase the holding capacity of starch paste water at low temperatures, increase hydrophilicity or provide hydrophobicity. Introduce body ions and the like to make it more suitable. The rate of change in the characteristics of starch after denaturation processing depends on the native starch varieties, pretreatment method, amylose ratio to amylopectin, distribution of starch molecular weight, type of denaturation reaction, type of substituent and degree of substitution, and whether native starch contains compound compounds. (protein, fat, phosphorus compounds) and other factors. Starch can be subject to two or more denaturation treatments to achieve the desired requirements.
      Pregelatinized starch is made by heating and gelatinization in water and drying. When used, the paste is adjusted to water, the heating is removed, and the product can be substantially rehydrated into a thick paste liquid. There are three methods of preparation. 1 Winding method,       heated milk starch and gelatin on drums that are heated and dried, scraped into several parts and crushed and filtered to get the product. 2 Extrusion method, starch with a little water is pressed under high shear force through a superheated cylinder, and is suddenly aerated and dried in the atmosphere, and the product is obtained by crushing and filtering. 3 spray method, gelatinization heated milk starch, spray drying into powder in the heated drying chamber. Pregelatinized starch is a material commonly used in food powders that has been mixed and can be used as a thickener for serum foods. Industrial use as a compatibilizer for oil drilling mud, binders for metal mold cores.
       Modified crosslinked starch where certain difunctional or polyfunctional chemicals are cross-linked with etherification or esterification of two hydroxyl groups in the same molecule or different starch molecules. Starch granules, after cross-linking, strengthen hydrogen bonds that are tightly bound in the granules. A small amount of crosslinking agent can significantly change the gelatinization and swelling properties of starch granules. Industrial crosslinked starch generally has one cross-bonding bond per 200 to 2000 glucose units. The crosslinking agent is added to the alkali aqueous suspension of starch below 50 ° C to carry out the reaction, and after the desired degree, is neutralized, and the remaining salts and reagents are washed by filtration, washed with water, and dried. Reagents which are cross-linked with starch are actually used for production of only adipic acid and acetic acid mixed with anhydride (made into adipate), sodium trimethaphosphate (made into diammonium phosphate) and epichlorohydrin (made).
1 Starch acetate: refers to the hydroxyl group esterification product in the unit unit of glucose in the starch molecule with acetic acid. Products that have a substitution rate of 0.2 or less are used in production. Compared to native starch, the gelatinization temperature of starch acetate was reduced by 5 to 10 ° C, so that gelatin is easy during hot boiling. When starch paste is cooled, viscosity rises slowly, liquid paste is transparent, and condensation is relieved. Acetate starch combined with cross-linking treatment can withstand high pH3 sterilization, high pressure homogenization, shear forces during pumping, and 5 ° C or - 18 ° C. Low temperature, so it is suitable for canned food, frozen food, dried food, baby food, fruit fillings and creams. The US Food and Drug Administration allows acetate with an acetyl content below 2.5% for use in food. The paper industry is used to measure paper surface size, improve printing ability, make pores smooth and uniform, and increase surface strength, abrasion resistance, oil absorption and solvent resistance. Suitable for making adhesive tapes.
2 Succinate starch: Half an ester formed by esterification of the hydroxyl group in glucose units from starch molecules with succinic acid. Can swell in cold water, gelatinization temperature is lower than original starch, strong viscosity, clear liquid and frozen resistance, suitable for soups, canned food, frozen food, disintegrator used as tablets in medicine; paper Used as surface paste and bonding layer.
3 Starch succinate alkene: half an ester formed by esterification of the hydroxyl group of glucose units in starch molecules with succinic acid alkene. This derivative has an original hydrophilic group and a suitable hydrophobic group, and is an excellent emulsion stabilizer. The most important of these is octene succinate starch, which can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions and can be used as an emulsifier for soft drinks to summarize water-insoluble ingredients such as flavors, flavors and vitamins, which are suitable for spray drying. It can also be used as a slow release encapsulation agent.
4 Starch phosphate: A derivative of the glucose unit part of the starch molecule which is esterified with phosphoric acid. If the phosphate is only combined with the hydroxyl group in the starch molecule, it is called phosphate starch. It is an anionic derivative, high paste viscosity, clear and stable, and frozen resistance is superior to other derivatives, can be made with cooling water. Pudding powder. The US Food and Drug Administration allows several starches that are esterified with phosphates such as sodium dihydrogen phosphate for use in food. The phosphorus content of starch (in the case of phosphorus) must not exceed 0.4%. It is used as a wet end additive and paint binder in paper making, as a measure of size in textiles, as a filler in medicine, and as a flocculant for wastewater treatment.
5 Starch Sulfate: A product of an esterification reaction from a part of the glucose unit from the starch molecule with sulfuric acid. This can form a thick, clear and stable paste. It has biological activity and has certain uses in medicine.
6 Staranth xanthate: Starch is a product formed by esterification of alcohol with dithiocarbonic acid. In fact, starch is produced by reacting with carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydroxide and water. Starch xanthate is used for the exchange of metal ions in wastewater treatment, used for encapsulation of volatile pesticides for slow release, can be used as fillers for granular rubber, paper making is used as an interfiber binder.
The product of the etherification reaction of the hydroxyl group in the glucose unit section in starch ether molecules with hydrocarbon chains. Useful for hydroxyethyl starch and hydroxypropyl starch.