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     flour is obtained from corn, sorghum, wheat and other cereal crops, such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other potato plants. After soaking and grinding, non-flour substances such as protein, fat, and cellulose are separated and removed. When flour is processed from corn, non-flour obtained such as protein and corn oil has a high value, so the corn flour industry develops rapidly. After developing technical processing in flour to prepare flour sugars and flour derivatives, various applications of flour were explored, which promoted the development of flour processing into large-scale industrial production. flour is a white granular carbohydrate naturally synthesized by plants through photosynthesis, found in plant seeds (such as corn, wheat, rice, sorghum and beans), roots (such as yams, cassava), and tubers (such as potatoes). Is being flour content in seeds, roots and stems of various plants, morphology and particle structure varies with variety, climate, soil culture and other growth conditions.
      flour products are products made from flour, which are processed by mechanical, chemical or biochemical processes. There are many types of flour products, and the classification method varies. According to processing technology, it can roughly be divided into four categories: flour separation products, flour products, modified floures and flour sugars. Most of these products are raw materials for the food or food industry, and some raw materials for the paper industry, the textile industry, and other industries.
The physical properties of flour and the chemical structure of flour consist of small particles of various shapes. Particles of cornflour are mostly round and polygonal, with diameters of 5 to 26 microns, oval flour potatoes, with diameters of 15 to 100 microns, and polygonal rice flour with a diameter of 3 to 8 microns.
      flour granules do not dissolve in cold water and are mixed with water to form a suspension of milk called flour milk. When milk flour is heated to a certain temperature, flour granules swell and swell to get thick flour paste. This phenomenon is called gelatinization, and this temperature is called the gelatinization temperature. The gelatinization temperature of corn flour is 64-72 ° C, potato flour 56-67 ° C, and sweet potato flour 70-76 ° C. Different products can be made using different gelatinization temperatures.
It was known in the early 19th century that flour was a polysaccharide consisting of glucose. D-glucose configuration was determined between 1884 and 1894. It was determined around 1935 that the glucose units that make up flour were α-D-hexacyclic glucose, and most of them consisted of α-1,4 bonds. Until 1941, the flour was successfully divided into linear chains consisting of linear structures. Two parts of amylopectin are composed of flour and branched structures. Different flour varieties contain two different types of flour, for example, amylose content in corn flour is around 26%, while high-chain corn flour content reaches 70-80%. The content of rice and potato flour is around 70%. Around 20%. Amylopectin content in sticky corn and glutinous flour can reach 100%.
          flour production In the early stages of production flour, potatoes and nuts are used. The steps of flour processing are soaking raw materials, coarse and fine secondary grinding, sifting and separation of fibers, and slurry fermented with lactic acid to separate proteins, and after repeated rinsing, the slurry is filtered by hanging bags to get more flour. Processed into food such as fans and powder.
Because of the development of application technology, the technology of making flour has been continuously improved, and modern corn has been used to produce flour (see processing wheat).
The product of separating flour separates flour into relatively simple amylose and amylopectin products.
      The separation method using different physical and chemical properties of the two components above has been studied. However, because the product obtained is basically a mixture of two components, and a large amount of energy consumed in the separation process, this separation technique has no practicality in the application of industrial production. In agriculture, breeding technology basically meets the requirements. For example, in US flour, special corn varieties with 80% amylose content have been produced on a large scale, and astringent (thick) grains containing almost amylopectin are more common in the world. Directly used to produce relatively simple amylose or amylopectin products.
      Amylose has good film-forming properties and can be made into edible films with high tensile strength, solubility in water, and biodegradability. The addition of a hydrophobic or amylose plasticizer modified by crosslinking reaction can be used to form a waterproof film. Amylose is a strong binder, coating agent, paste, gelling agent and adhesive. Amylopectin is stable in solution, does not easily thicken, gel or settle, and can maintain a transparent and thick liquid paste for a long time, and is suitable for food preparation that has such requirements.
       Products formed by flour undergo a process of heating, gelatinization, printing and drying to form products with certain shapes. There are fans, skin powder, sago, etc.
      The fan fan is traditional Chinese food, made from green bean flour and boiling water to make a thin paste. Add the right raw flour, stir to get a thick and medium paste, then place it on the bottom of the barrel to leak with lots of small round holes. In the middle, the paste naturally flows from the hole to the thin strip and falls into the water with almost boiling. Thin slices are cooked and formed, and then flow through the adjacent cold water bath to cool, and then cut and dry. Peanut flour can leak into a strong, sustainable filament product called a fan. Potato flour can only leak into products with a relatively large diameter, commonly called vermicelli.
      Powdered milk flour is placed in a shallow metal tray and floating above a boiling water bath for boiling, and the powder is peeled into thin sheets.
      Sago will adjust tapioca flour or sago flour into a thin paste, add about 20 times the raw flour and stir it into a dough shape, then grind it into a bead and dry form. Suitable for making sweet fillings and fruit.
       Fast food in Europe can be granulated with potato flour and condensed milk or milk powder, heated and dried at a temperature of 100 to 150 ° C, and immediately served after preparation.
      Raw flour which is chemically modified, physically or enzymatically modified to change its properties to be more suitable for a variety of specific uses. Also known as modified flour.
      There are many treatment methods for flour denaturation. Dense flour granules and gelatinization in water, called pre-gelatinization flour. Some of them are heated or chemically destroyed to break down some or all flour molecules, and the structure of flour granules is weakened, which reduces the ability to swell during gelatinization. Acid-modified floures (acid-modified floures), oxidized and dextrin floures, and chemical treatments to change the chemical structure of several units of glucose in flour molecules to form derivatives such as flour esters, flour ether, transplanted flour, flour dialdehyde and ionic flour, etc.
     The purpose of flour denaturation is to change the gelatinization properties and paste characteristics of native flour, reduce the tendency of flour to regulate and the tendency of gelation, increase the holding capacity of flour paste water at low temperatures, increase hydrophilicity or provide hydrophobicity. Introduce body ions and the like to make it more suitable. The rate of change in the characteristics of flour after denaturation processing depends on the native flour varieties, pretreatment method, amylose ratio to amylopectin, distribution of flour molecular weight, type of denaturation reaction, type of substituent and degree of substitution, and whether native flour contains compound compounds. (protein, fat, phosphorus compounds) and other factors. flour can be subject to two or more denaturation treatments to achieve the desired requirements.
      Pregelatinized flour is made by heating and gelatinization in water and drying. When used, the paste is adjusted to water, the heating is removed, and the product can be substantially rehydrated into a thick paste liquid. There are three methods of preparation. 1 Winding method, heated milk flour and gelatin on drums that are heated and dried, scraped into several parts and crushed and filtered to get the product. 2 Extrusion method, flour with a little water is pressed under high shear force through a superheated cylinder, and is suddenly aerated and dried in the atmosphere, and the product is obtained by crushing and filtering. 3 spray method, gelatinization heated milk flour, spray drying into powder in the heated drying chamber. Pregelatinized flour is a material commonly used in food powders that has been mixed and can be used as a thickener for serum foods. Industrial use as a compatibilizer for oil drilling mud, binders for metal mold cores.
      A product obtained by reacting acid-modified flour with acid at the temperature of gelatinization under flour. A product made by treating flour milk with acid and heating to gelatinization temperature or higher is flour saccharide. When acid-modified floures are produced, flour milk added with sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 40 to 60 ° C, stirred for several hours, and after the desired conversion rate is achieved, the acid is neutralized, filtered or centrifuged, washed with water and dried. The main characteristics of acid-modified flour are molecular shrinkage, decreased viscosity, increase in alkali value (reduction value), increase in solubility in hot water, and flow of hot pasta increase, so that it can be cooked at high concentrations and harden after cooling. This gel is suitable for making gum base. The acid denatured sticky corn flour paste can be stored transparently without gelation after cooling, and is suitable for the manufacture of adhesive tape. Because of the good film-forming and adhesion properties, it is very suitable for the size of threads and adhesive bags.
      The oxidized flour industry refers to the oxidation treatment of flour with hypochlorite, oxidation of several groups of aldehydes and hydroxyl groups in the glucosyl group to carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and some molecular chains are also broken, also known as hypochlorite modification. flour. At the time of manufacture, the flour milk is adjusted to the base in the reaction tank with stirrer slurry, and sodium hypochlorite (or calcium) solution is added to control the temperature at 21 to 38 ° C. After different reaction times, products of different specifications can be produced. After the flour is oxidized, the gelatinization temperature is lowered, gelatinization is easy, the paste viscosity is lowered and stabilized, adhesive strength is strong, the deposition property is weak, the water reservoir property is good, and the film formation property is good. Widely used for paper and board surface sizes. In recent years, the use of oxidized flour has declined in this regard because of the "in situ" conversion technology that paper mills promote ongoing enzymatic conversion and thermochemical conversion. In the textile industry, oxidized flour is mainly used for size, as well as for dyeing and printing. Oxidized flour is used as a thickener in the food industry and is more suitable for making gum bases than for acidic conversion flour. Lightly oxidized flour is suitable for modulating dough and breadcrumbs for dipping layers before frying.
      Dextrin-based products are made from dextrin-dried granular flour with a pyrolysis conversion reaction. Dextrins made by acids or enzymatic hydrolysis are different. Dextrin pyrolysis can be divided into white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum. The process of making dextrins mainly includes four steps of pretreatment (acid addition or buffer), pre-drying, pyrolysis conversion, and cooling. White dextrin is converted at low pH and low temperature, British sap is converted to high pH and high temperature, yellow dextrin is converted at low pH and high temperature. The chemical reaction of the pyrolysis refining process is very complicated, especially including hydrolysis, glucoside transfer and repolymerization. The nature and color, solubility, reducing sugar content, and viscosity of pyrodextrins vary depending on the type and level of conversion. Dextrin is widely used as an adhesive and is very suitable for formulating adhesives with high solid content. Dextrins can attach quickly and quickly to dry, thus increasing the bonding speed. Suitable for spiral roll ties, laminates, cardboard boxes, bottle labels, envelope ties, manufacture adhesive tapes, cigarette seals, library adhesives, wallpaper adhesives, paper bag adhesives, etc.
      Modified crosslinked flour where certain difunctional or polyfunctional chemicals are cross-linked with etherification or esterification of two hydroxyl groups in the same molecule or different flour molecules. flour granules, after cross-linking, strengthen hydrogen bonds that are tightly bound in the granules. A small amount of crosslinking agent can significantly change the gelatinization and swelling properties of flour granules. Industrial crosslinked flour generally has one cross-bonding bond per 200 to 2000 glucose units. The crosslinking agent is added to the alkali aqueous suspension of flour below 50 ° C to carry out the reaction, and after the desired degree, is neutralized, and the remaining salts and reagents are washed by filtration, washed with water, and dried. Reagents which are cross-linked with flour are actually used for production of only adipic acid and acetic acid mixed with anhydride (made into adipate), sodium trimethaphosphate (made into diammonium phosphate) and epichlorohydrin (made). Some are like dimethane glycerin. Food is limited to diamilic acid flour and diammonium phosphate.
      Crosslinked flour granules are relatively strong in the structure and are not easily broken by shear, high temperature or acidity, and can maintain a high working viscosity. When the bonding level is cross high, it does not gelatin even under high pressure cooking. Star-linked cross is suitable for salad sauce, canned soup, broth, sauce, baby food, fruit contents, pudding, etc., and fried foods. It is also suitable for textile printing pastes, corrugated adhesives, oil well sludge, dry batteries, batteries . Electrolyte adsorbent, fiber slurry.
      A product formed by esterification of hydroxyl groups in the glucose unit part of flour ester molecules with organic or inorganic acids. There are six types of practical meanings of the following production.
      1 flour acetate: refers to the hydroxyl group esterification product in the unit unit of glucose in the flour molecule with acetic acid. Products that have a substitution rate of 0.2 or less are used in production. Compared to native flour, the gelatinization temperature of flour acetate was reduced by 5 to 10 ° C, so that gelatin is easy during hot boiling. When flour paste is cooled, viscosity rises slowly, liquid paste is transparent, and condensation is relieved. Acetate flour combined with cross-linking treatment can withstand high pH3 sterilization, high pressure homogenization, shear forces during pumping, and 5 ° C or - 18 ° C. Low temperature, so it is suitable for canned food, frozen food, dried food, baby food, fruit fillings and creams. The US Food and Drug Administration allows acetate with an acetyl content below 2.5% for use in food. The paper industry is used to measure paper surface size, improve printing ability, make pores smooth and uniform, and increase surface strength, abrasion resistance, oil absorption and solvent resistance. Suitable for making adhesive tapes.
      2 Succinate flour: Half an ester formed by esterification of the hydroxyl group in glucose units from flour molecules with succinic acid. Can swell in cold water, gelatinization temperature is lower than original flour, strong viscosity, clear liquid and frozen resistance, suitable for soups, canned food, frozen food, disintegrator used as tablets in medicine; paper Used as surface paste and bonding layer.
3 flour succinate alkene: half an ester formed by esterification of the hydroxyl group of glucose units in flour molecules with succinic acid alkene. This derivative has an original hydrophilic group and a suitable hydrophobic group, and is an excellent emulsion stabilizer. The most important of these is octene succinate flour, which can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions and can be used as an emulsifier for soft drinks to summarize water-insoluble ingredients such as flavors, flavors and vitamins, which are suitable for spray drying. It can also be used as a slow release encapsulation agent.
      4 flour phosphate: A derivative of the glucose unit part of the flour molecule which is esterified with phosphoric acid. If the phosphate is only combined with the hydroxyl group in the flour molecule, it is called phosphate flour. It is an anionic derivative, high paste viscosity, clear and stable, and frozen resistance is superior to other derivatives, can be made with cooling water. Pudding powder. The US Food and Drug Administration allows several floures that are esterified with phosphates such as sodium dihydrogen phosphate for use in food. The phosphorus content of flour (in the case of phosphorus) must not exceed 0.4%. It is used as a wet end additive and paint binder in paper making, as a measure of size in textiles, as a filler in medicine, and as a flocculant for wastewater treatment.
5 flour Sulfate: A product of an esterification reaction from a part of the glucose unit from the flour molecule with sulfuric acid. This can form a thick, clear and stable paste. It has biological activity and has certain uses in medicine.
6 Staranth xanthate: flour is a product formed by esterification of alcohol with dithiocarbonic acid. In fact, flour is produced by reacting with carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydroxide and water. flour xanthate is used for the exchange of metal ions in wastewater treatment, used for encapsulation of volatile pesticides for slow release, can be used as fillers for granular rubber, paper making is used as an interfiber binder.
The product of the etherification reaction of the hydroxyl group in the glucose unit section in flour ether molecules with hydrocarbon chains. Useful for hydroxyethyl flour and hydroxypropyl flour.
1 hydroxyethyl flour: a hydroxyl group of parts of glucose units in flour molecules


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