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Syrup processing technology

      A general term for sugar products that are produced using starch starch as raw material. There has been sugar production during the Warring States Period in China. The method of using malt to make sugar has been used until now (see the history of sugar technology). In 1811, when German chemist K. Kirchhof uses adhesive acid hydrolyzed potato starch to produce glucose because of excessive hydrolysis, a method for producing glucose from starch is found. In 1940, the United States began producing starch sugar with an acidase and saccharification process, which was the beginning of enzymatic starch sugar production. In 1960, Japan began producing crystal glucose through melting with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase saccharification. The saccharification solution obtained by the double enzymatic method has high purity and pure sweetness. After the promotion of the double enzyme process, the old acid saccharification process is gradually eliminated. However, because of the low sweetness of starch sugar, development is affected. In 1957, R.O. Marshall et al. Found that microorganisms can produce isomerase, which can make glucose is isomerized to fructose. The sweetness of fructose is 1.5 times that of sucrose, which overcomes the lack of sweetness of starch sugar. Japan first used this isomerase technology to produce glucose syrup produced by multiple enzymatic methods, and finally obtained fructose with the action of isomerase, and the sweet taste was similar to sucrose. This consequence has developed rapidly in countries such as the United States and Japan. Fructose has been listed as the three main sources of sugar along with cane sugar and beet sugar. Starch sugar varieties are the two main categories of glucose and starch syrup.
      Glucose is widely distributed in nature and named for its high content in wine. Because glucose has the right hand, also known as dextrose. The crystal is white and has a monoclinic, half-faceted and hexagonal shape. Crystals have high strength and are easily separated from honey and water. Soluble in water, difficult to dissolve in alcohol, insoluble in ether, chloroform and other organic solvents. This is easily oxidized and hence is called reducing sugar. The sugar is oxidized in an alkaline state, and the base chain is easily broken down, so that the glucose solution is alkaline and unstable. The oxidation of glucose in the body releases 16.72 kJ of heat. Glucose products include injection sugar, oral sugar and industrial sugar. Medically injected sugar and oral sugar are used as antidotes and nutrients for patients and people who are weak. Industrial sugar is widely used in food processing, and glucose in crystallization mother solutions is a carbon source in fermentation media.
      Crystalline glucose has three types of α-glucose, α-glucose anhydrous and β-glucose anhydrous. A large number of α-glucose-producing water is produced in China. In the past, China has been produced by the saccharification process of fine acid starch, and low sugar yields. At present, acid melting and enzyme saccharification processes have been adopted, and some have begun to use double enzyme production. To ensure its quality, in addition to glucose injection must be produced by the crystallization process, a dual enzymatic method of oral glucose can also be used in the whole sugar spray method or the production process of cutting sugar blocks.
     A product where starch syrup starch is hydrolyzed by enzymes, acids or acid enzymes. The proportion of various components of sugar varies depending on the level of hydrolysis. Starch hydrolysis, which is known in the industry as a conversion. According to the transformation rate, starch syrup is divided into three types of syrup: low conversion, medium conversion and high conversion. There are five main varieties.
1 maltodextrin: low level conversion starch decomposition agent. The glucose value is controlled below 20, and the composition of the product, especially dextrin. Usually it is sprayed dry into powder, and there are also liquid products. Good water solubility, no sweet taste or a little sweet, easy to digest, low water absorption. It is widely used in food processing as thickener, foaming agent, stabilizer and filler for sweets, health food, solid drinks, canned foods and fruit preservation.
2 liquid glucose syrup: medium conversion syrup. The glucose value is 38-42, colorless and transparent, thicker and more stable, and the sweetness is 45-50% sucrose. These are raw materials for food such as cakes, sweets, and canned fruits. This is the highest yield of Chinese starch sugar and has several exports. Syrup is produced using processed starch as a raw material and uses the acid hydrolysis process.
3 maltose syrup: high conversion syrup. The main component is maltose and glucose. Because of its high maltose content, it is called maltose syrup, also known as sucrose. In production, crushed rice or millet and sweet potato are used as raw materials, and α-amylase contained in malt is used for liquefaction, and β-amylase is saccharified to maltose. In addition to the use of malt, most factories have adopted the liquefaction method with α-amylase and mashing. The content of maltose in sucrose is 30-40%. The color is golden yellow, soft in sweet taste and has a unique taste, is one of the most used starch sugars in Chinese food processing. The maltose variation is changing because of the development of application techniques for enzymes. For example, in a solution of 20 glucose glucose liquefaction, the addition of saccharification Aspergillus oryzae, the maltose content in the product can be increased by up to 50%. Maltose has better thermal stability than glucose, does not change color easily due to heat, has good taste, and does not stick to teeth.
4 High maltose syrup: Made by adding α-1.6 glucosidase and β-amylase in combination with saccharification in liquefying liquids that have a glucose value of 0.5 to 5. The content of maltose in syrup can be increased to more than 90%. High Maltose is an excellent raw material for sweets. High maltose can be made into high maltitol with hydrogenation. The syrup is hydrogenated to alcohol, the reducibility is completely lost, the thermal stability is greatly increased, and not baked when heated to above 200 ° C, and heated together with nitrogen-containing substances, and not affected. Sweetener.
5 fructose syrup: a newly developed starch sugar product. This is a clear, transparent, colorless, sweet and sweet sweetener. Industrially, this syrup is formed by an isomerization reaction of glucose into glucose isomerase to convert a portion of glucose in syrup to fructose. The composition of sugar is mainly 42% fructose, 50% glucose, 8% oligosaccharide, and the dry matter content of the product is 71%. This consists mainly of fructose and glucose, so it is called fructose syrup, called fructose. A product with 42% fructose content is called first generation fructose syrup, and its sweet taste is similar to sucrose, and is suitable as a sweetener for various foods. The production of fructose syrup overcomes the sweetness of low starch sugar.
The composition of fructose is monosaccharide, lower molecular weight, higher osmotic pressure, growth of microorganisms can be inhibited, and the ability of antiseptics is strong, which is beneficial for preserved food. Processing candied fruit and jam can make sugar quickly pass through the interior of the cell tissue to improve product quality. Fructose has poor thermal stability and easily reacts with amino acids to form colored substances, but has a special taste and is used in foods such as bread and cakes, has beautiful colors and good taste. Fruit sugar is strong in water absorption, which can make soft cakes soft for a long time and extend shelf life. The sweetness is pure and cold, and does not cover the fruit's taste. This is an excellent sweetener for drinks.
Since 1978, second generation fructose has been produced. The second generation fructose composition was: fructose 55%, 40% glucose, 5% oligosaccharide, and the dry syrup content was 77%. Second generation fructose has a sweet taste of 110% sucrose and has a sweet aroma of honey, which is very popular among the beverage processing industry. Since the use of second generation fructose as a sweetener in drinks such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi, second generation fructose production has increased rapidly, and current production has exceeded first generation fructose. In the United States, second-generation fructose production in 1985 accounted for 58.6% of total fruit sugar production. The second generation fructose production process is based on the first generation of fructose as raw material, using ion exchange resin color separation columns or inorganic adsorbents, using the principle of strong adsorption for fructose and weak glucose adsorption, sugar After the liquid passes through the column, fructose is adsorbed to the column, and finally water eluted and separated by adsorption on the movable bed simulated to produce third generation high fructose syrup which has a sugar content of 90% or more. Second generation fructose syrup is made by mixing third generation high fructose with first generation fructose 1: 3.
A 70% trend in starch production is based on corn. The use of corn to produce starch, the raw material is easy to obtain, and the economic benefits are good. When a modern factory produces starch, the water uses a closed cycle, the dry material recovery rate of corn reaches 99%, and 1% loss also includes dust from raw materials. Starch production is expected to receive further attention and development.
Starch is produced enzymatically to re-isomerize glucose, and the resulting sugar syrup is considered to be the most significant breakthrough in the modern sugar industry.
Varieties that are further processed from starch to produce modified starch have developed rapidly. Many countries have begun to emphasize the use of continuously regenerated starch resources to produce a variety of organic chemicals given the limited mineral resources. Starch can be added to raw materials such as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride to make plastics and films that can be degraded microbes and avoid environmental pollution. This is very suitable for agricultural soil films, garbage bags and packaging materials. After copolymerization of starch and acrylonitrile grafts, a material which has a water absorption rate of 1000 times its own weight can be obtained.


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